It hasn’t even been found yet (they’re still working on that) but the recently-announced Planet Nine is already spurring discussion amongst the world’s astronomers. One of the recent topics surrounding this alleged new planet is (again, besides where it’s hiding) how it formed and how it got into the incredibly distant orbit it’s thought to be in. Estimated to be nearly as massive as Neptune, and possibly similarly gaseous as well, Planet Nine would be an anomaly among the small frozen balls of ice that typically haunt the outer Solar System. Recently, a team of scientists decided to investigate the possibility that Planet Nine did not originate in our Solar System at all but rather was captured from another star, back when the Sun’s stellar family was much closer together… and apparently much more trusting. (That’ll teach ’em.)
Our Sun may be made up of 98% hydrogen and helium but the remaining two percent comprises many other elements, detectable by their unique absorption lines within the gamut of white light we receive on Earth. One of those elements is calcium, which exists in ionized form in relatively tiny amounts in the Sun’s chromosphere – but still enough to allow images to be made using special filters aligned to the wavelength of its absorption line. And this is precisely what photographer Alan Friedman did on April 12, 2015 when he captured the image above!
Neutron stars are strange cosmic beasts. Stellar corpses that are several times the mass of our Sun but only about the width of Manhattan, they can contain a mountain’s worth of star-stuff within the space of a sugar cube, creating all sorts of weird physics that requires funny-sounding names like “quark-gluon plasma” to even try to describe what’s going on. The video above, created by Munich-based design studio Kurzgesagt (which means “in a nutshell” in German) illustrates how neutron stars form and what we think is happening on, around, and inside them.
See more In a Nutshell videos by Kurzgesagt on YouTube here, and find some interesting neutron star facts below:
It really is. I mean, nevermind that it comprises over 99% of all the mass in our solar system, that it supplies our planet with the energy needed to sustain life on its surface, that its constantly-blowing solar wind helps keep some of those nasty cosmic particles out of the planetary neighborhood, and that it makes a bright sunshiny day even possible (but remember to wear sunscreen!)… in addition to all that, it’s also just really, really cool.
Watch the video above and you’ll see what I mean.
An enormous tree-shaped prominence spreads its “branches” tens of thousands of miles above the Sun’s photosphere in this image, a section of a photo acquired in hydrogen alpha (Ha) by Alan Friedman last week from his backyard in Buffalo, NY. Writes Alan on his blog, “gotta love a sunny day in November!”
Check out the full image — along with an idea of just how big this “tree” actually is — here.
Taken on July 29, 2010, this hydrogen-alpha-light photo by Alan Friedman shows a delicate, wispy solar prominence stretching more than 200,000 miles from the Sun’s limb… nearly as far as the distance from Earth to the Moon!
This photo was taken with Alan’s backyard telescope from his location in Buffalo, NY. Many of his solar photos have been featured on prominent (no pun intended) astronomy and news websites. See more of Alan’s images on his blog here.
Credit: Alan Friedman. All rights reserved.